Kerio WinRoute Firewall 6.0


Глоссарий - часть 3

Network masks divide IP addresses into two parts (network address and address of a particular host within the network). Mask have the same form as IP addresses (i.e., however, its value is needed to be understood as a 32-bit number with certain number of ones on the left end and zeros as the rest. The mask cannot have an arbitrary value. The primary function of a subnet mask is to define the number of IP hosts that participate in an IP subnet. Computers in the same IP subnet should not require a router for network communication.

Network adapter

The equipment that connects hosts to a traffic medium. It can be represented by an Ethernet adapter, TokenRing adapter, by a modem, etc. Network adapters are used by hosts to send and receive packets. They are also referred to throughout this document as a network interface.

P2P network

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are worldwide distributd systems where each node can be used both as a client and a server. These networks are used for sharing of big volumes of data (this sharing is mostly illegal). DirectConnect and Kazaa are the most popular ones.


Basic data unit transmitted via computer networks. Packets consist of a header which include essential data (i.e. source and destination IP address, protocol type, etc.) and of the data body,. Data transmitted via networks is divided into small segments, or packets. If an error is detected in any packet or a packet is lost, it is not necessary to repeat the entire transmission process, only the particular packet will be re-sent.


Post Office Protocol is a protocol that enables users to download messages from a server to their local computer. It is suitable for clients who don't have a permanent connection to the Internet. Contrary to IMAP protocol, POP3 does not allow users to manage email from multiple locations because all operations to messages have to be made on a client's computer. POP3 enables access only to the INBOX folder and it does not support public and shared folders.


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